List of Countries with Risk of Yellow Fever
An International Immunization Certificate against yellow fever is required from any traveler who, within 90 days prior to entering Brazil, has been to any of the countries listed by the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) as a country with risk of yellow fever transmission Immunization against yellow fever is advisable if the applicant's destination in Brazil includes any of the following States: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins. (Source: Consulate General of Brazil Website.)
Vaccine Available in Abadiania
The Abadiania Health Services station or “Posto de Saude” generally has yellow fever vaccines in stock and they will inoculate anyone who asks for FREE.
They are located in downtown Abadiania near city hall and diagonally across the street from the Soup Kitchen.
There are some exceptions. They will not give you the vaccine if you:
- Have Cancer, Hepatitis or any autoimmune deficiency.
- Are pregnant
- Take corticoids. (Cortisone)
- Have had the Y.F. vaccine in the last 10 years.
- Are allergic to eggs.
Please be advised that the Yellow fever Vaccine requires about 10 days from innoculation to be effective
Yellow fever (also called yellow jack or sometimes black vomit or American Plague) is an acute viral disease. It is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes (the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and other species). Yellow fever is an important cause of hemorrhagic illness in many African and South American countries despite existence of an effective vaccine. The yellow refers to the jaundice symptoms that affect some patients.
Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics. Yellow fever epidemics broke out in the 1700s and 1900s in Italy, France, Spain, England, and the United States. Three hundred thousand people are believed to have died from yellow fever in Spain during the 19th century. French soldiers were attacked by yellow fever during the 1802 Haitian Revolution; more than half of the army perished from the disease. Outbreaks followed by thousands of deaths occurred periodically in other Western Hemisphere locations until research, which included human volunteers (some of whom died), led to an understanding of the method of transmission to humans (primarily by mosquitos) and development of a vaccine and other preventive efforts in the early 20th century.
Despite the breakthrough research of Cuban physician Carlos Finlay, American physician Walter Reed, and many others over 100 years ago, non-vaccinated populations in many developing nations in Africa and Central/South America continue to be at risk. As of 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that yellow fever causes 200,000 illnesses and 30,000 deaths every year in unvaccinated populations. Treatment
There is no true cure for yellow fever, therefore vaccination is important. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive only. Fluid replacement, fighting hypotension and transfusion of blood derivates is generally needed only in severe cases. In cases that result in acute renal failure, dialysis may be necessary. A fever victim needs to get a lot of rest, fresh air, and drink plenty of fluids.
The virus remains silent in the body during an incubation period of three to six days. There are then two disease phases. While some infections have no symptoms the first, acute phase is normally characterized by fever, muscle pain (with prominent backache), headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. The high fever is often paradoxically associated with a slow pulse (known as Faget's sign). After three or four days most patients improve and their symptoms disappear.
Fifteen percent of patients, however, enter a toxic phase within 24 hours. Fever reappears and several body systems are affected. The patient rapidly develops jaundice and complains of abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes, and stomach. Once this happens, blood appears in the vomit and feces. Kidney function deteriorates; this can range from abnormal protein levels in the urine (proteinuria) to complete kidney failure with no urine production (anuria). Half of the patients in the "toxic phase" die within fourteen days. The remainder recover without significant organ damage.
Yellow fever is difficult to recognize, especially during the early stages. It can easily be confused withmalaria, typhoid, rickettsial diseases, haemorrhagic viral fevers (e.g. Lassa), arboviral infections (e.g.dengue), leptospirosis, viral hepatitis and poisoning (e.g. carbon tetrachloride). A laboratory analysis is required to confirm a suspect case. Blood tests (serology assays) can detect yellow fever antibodies that are produced in response to the infection. Several other techniques are used to identify the virus itself in blood specimens or liver tissue collected after death. These tests require highly trained laboratory staff using specialized equipment and materials
(Source : www.wikipedia.org)
)) and dengue hemorrhagic fever
(DHF) are acute febrile diseases
, found in the tropics
, and caused by four closely related virus serotypes
of the genus Flavivirus
, family Flaviviridae
It is also known as breakbone fever
. The geographical spread includes northern Australia
, northern Argentina
, and southern and southeastern Brazil
, and the entire Singapore
, Costa Rica
, Sri Lanka
, Puerto Rico
. Unlike malaria, dengue is just as prevalent in the urban districts of its range as in rural areas. Eachserotype
is sufficiently different that there is no cross-protection and epidemics
caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity) can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti
or more rarely the Aedes albopictus mosquito
, which feed during the day.
The WHO says some 2.5 billion people, two fifths of the world's population, are now at risk from dengue and estimates that there may be 50 million cases of dengue infection worldwide every year. The disease is now epidemic in more than 100 countries.
Signs and symptoms
The disease manifests as a sudden onset of severe headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias and arthralgias—severe pain that gives it the nick-name break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease), fever, and rash. The dengue rash is characteristically bright red petechiae and usually appears first on the lower limbs and the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also be gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Some cases develop much milder symptoms which can be misdiagnosed as influenza or other viral infection when no rash is present. Thus travelers from tropical areas may pass on dengue in their home countries inadvertently, having not been properly diagnosed at the height of their illness. Patients with dengue can pass on the infection only through mosquitoes or blood products and only while they are still febrile. The classic dengue fever lasts about six to seven days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the disease (the so-called biphasic pattern). Clinically, the platelet count will drop until the patient's temperature is normal. Cases of DHF also show higher fever, variable haemorrhagic phenomena, thrombocytopenia, and haemoconcentration. A small proportion of cases lead to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) which has a high mortality rate. DHF combined with a cirrhotic liver has been suspected in rapid development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given that the Dengue virus (DEN) is related to theHepatitis C virus, this is an avenue for further research as HCC is among the top five cancerous causes of death outside Europe and North America. Normally HCC does not occur in a cirrhotic liver for ten or more years after the cessation of the poisoning agent. DHF patients can develop HCC within one year of cessation of abuse. (Source : www.wikipedia.org)
Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public health problem. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Five species of the plasmodium parasite can infect humans; the most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae causes milder disease in humans that is not generally fatal. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans. This group of human-pathogenic Plasmodium species is usually referred to as malaria parasites.
Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria, and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken, which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About one week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites mix with the mosquito's saliva and are injected into the person being bitten. The parasites multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anemia (light-headedness, shortness of breath, tachycardia, etc.), as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills,nausea, flu-like illness, and, in severe cases, coma, and death. Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites with mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs. Work has been done on malaria vaccines with limited success and more exotic controls, such as genetic manipulation of mosquitoes to make them resistant to the parasite have also been considered. 
Although some are under development, no vaccine is currently available for malaria that provides a high level of protection; preventive drugs must be taken continuously to reduce the risk of infection. These prophylactic drug treatments are often too expensive for most people living in endemic areas. Most adults from endemic areas have a degree of long-term infection, which tends to recur, and also possess partial immunity (resistance); the resistance reduces with time, and such adults may become susceptible to severe malaria if they have spent a significant amount of time in non-endemic areas. They are strongly recommended to take full precautions if they return to an endemic area. Malaria infections are treated through the use ofantimalarial drugs, such as quinine or artemisinin derivatives. However, parasites have evolved to be resistant to many of these drugs. Therefore, in some areas of the world, only a few drugs remain as effective treatments for malaria. (Read Full Wikipedia Article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria )